Brief Bibliography on Discourse and Dissent



Version 1.0.  June 2004.



Teun A. van Dijk

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

E-address: teun at







Adams, K. L. (1999). Creating 'To the Contrary Selves.' In C. Basham, S. Fiksdal & P. Rounds (Eds.), "Notion of Person," Special issue of Language Sciences 21: 303-311.


Adams, K. L. (1999). Deliberate Dispute and the Construction of Oppositional Stances. 1999. Pragmatics 9.2:231-248.


Adams, K. L. (1999). Democrats vs. Republicans vs. Others: the Construction of Major and Minor Identities. In J.Verschueren (Ed), Language and Ideology: Selected Papers from the 6th International Pragmatics Conference, (pp.1 -13). Antwerp, Belgium: International Pragmatics Association.


Adams, K.L., & Winter, A. (1997). Gang Graffiti as a Discourse Genre. Journal of Sociolinguistics 1(3), 337-360. 


Agger, B. (1990). The decline of discourse: Reading, writing, and resistance in postmodern capitalism. New York: Falmer Press.


Aleman, M. W. (2001). Complaining among the elderly: Examining multiple dialectical oppositions to independence in a retirement community. Western Journal of Communication, 65(1), 89-112.


Alvarez-Cáccamo, C. (1993). The pigeon house, the octopus and the people: The ideologization of linguistic practices in Galiza. Plurilinguismes 6, 1-26. Monographic Issue on Sociolinguistique galicienne, ed. by Xoán Paulo Rodríguez Yañez.


Alvarez-Cáccamo, C. (1996). Building alliances in political discourse: Language, institutional authority, and resistance. Folia Linguistica XXX.3/4. Special Issue on Interactional Sociolinguistics, ed. by Helga Kotthoff, 245-270.


Ascham, A. (1689). A seasonable discourse. Wherein is examined what is lawful during the confusions and revolutions of government .... London: Printed, and are to be sold by R. Janeway.


Badri Narayan (2001). Documenting dissent. Contesting fables, contested memories, and dalit political discourse. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.


Ballou, A., Ballou, A., & Ballou, A. (1972). Christian non-resistance in all its important bearings. Illustrated and defended, together with A discourse on Christian non-resistance in extreme cases, and Christian non-resistance defended against Rev. Henry Ward Beecher. New York: Garland Pub.


Bass, J. D. (1979). The Rhetorical Opposition to Controversial Wars: Rhetorical Timing as a Generic Consideration. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 43(5), 180-191.


Bazerman, C. (2001).  Nuclear information: One rhetorical moment in the construction of the Information Age. Written-Communication, 18(3), 259-295.


Bergvall, V. L., & Remlinger, K. A. (1996). Reproduction, resistance and gender in educational discourse: the role of Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse & Society 7(4), 453-479.


Bhatia, V., & Coleman, W. D. (2003). Ideas and Discourse: Reform and Resistance in the Canadian and German Health Systems. Canadian Journal of Political Science-Revue Canadienne de Science Politique, 36(4), 715-739.


Bjorgo, T. (1995). Extreme Nationalism and Violent Discourses in Scandinavia: 'The Resistance', 'Traitors', and 'Foreign Invaders'. Terrorism And Political Violence, 7(1), 182-220.


Björgo, T. (1994). Extreme Nationalism in Scandinavia: The Rhetoric of the Resistance, Traitors, and Foreign Invaders. Internasjonal Politikk, 52(1), 3-34.


Bolívar, A., Chumaceiro. I. & Erlich, F. (2003) Divergencia, confontación y atenuación en el diálogo político. Revista Iberoamericana de Discurso y Sociedad, 4(3), 121-151.


Bouchard, C. B. (2003). Every valley shall be exalted. The discourse of opposites in twelfth-century thought. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.


Briggs, C. L. (1988). Competence in performance: The creativity of tradition in Mexicano verbal art. Conduct and Communication Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.


Briggs, C. L. (1993). "I'm not just talking to the victims of oppression tonight I'm talking to everybody": Rhetorical authority and narrative authenticity in an African-American poetics of political engagement. Journal of Narrative and Life History 3(1):33-77.


Briggs, C. L., & Mantini-Briggs, C. (2003). Stories in the time of cholera: Racial profiling during a medical nightmare. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Brush, P. S. (1999). The influence of social movements on articulations of race and gender in Black women's autobiographies. Gender & Society, 13(1), 120-137.


Burman, E., Aitken, G., Alldred, P., & Allwood, R., et al. (1996). Psychology discourse practice: From regulation to resistance. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.


Callahan, W. (1994). Imagining the Demos at the Demos: Mob Discourse in Thai Politics. Alternatives, 19(3), 339-370.


Campos, G. P., Ramos, C. S., & Bernal, J. J. Y. (1999). Emotion discourse "speaks" of involvement: Commentary on Edwards. Culture & Psychology, 5(3), 293-304.


Carbaugh, D. (2001). "The people will come to you": Blackfeet narrative as a resource for contemporary living. In: Brockmeier, Jens, & Carbaugh, Donal. (Eds.), Narrative and identity :Studies in autobiography, self and culture. Studies in narrative. (pp. 103-127). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.


Carranza, I. E. (1998). Low-Narrativity Narratives and Argumentation. Narrative Inquiry 8 (2), 287-317.


Carranza, I. E. (1999). Winning the battle in private discourse: rhetorical-logical operations in storytelling. Discourse & Society 10 (4), 509-541.


Cattell, M. G. (1992). Praise the Lord and say no to men: Older women empowering themselves in Samia, Kenya. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 7(4), 307-330.


Coates, R. D. (1999). Social action, radical dialectics, and popular protests: Treatment of African American leaders and intellectuals by the press. Journal of Black-Studies, 30(1), 85-102.


Coles, R. L. (1998). Peaceniks and Warmongers Framing Fracas on the Home Front:  Dominant and Opposition Discourse Interaction During the Persian-Gulf Crisis.  Sociological Quarterly, 39(3), 369-391.


Coles, R. L. (1998). Peaceniks and Warmongers Framing Fracas on the Home Front: Dominant and Opposition Discourse Interaction During the Persian-Gulf Crisis. Sociological Quarterly, 39(3), 369-391.


Condit, C. M., & Lucaites, J. L. (1993). Malcolm-X and the Limits of the Rhetoric of Revolutionary Dissent. Journal of Black Studies, 23(3), 291-313.


Crenshaw, C. (1997). Resisting whiteness' rhetorical silence. Western Journal of  Communication, 61(3), 253-278.


Crenshaw, C. (1997). Resisting whiteness' rhetorical silence. Western Journal of Communication, 61(3), 253-278.


Croghan, R., & Miell, D. (1998). Strategies of resistance: "Bad" mothers dispute the evidence. Feminism and Psychology, 8(4), 445-465.


Cutter, M. J. (1994). Losing the Battle But Winning the War: Resistance to Patriarchal Discourse in Kate Chopin Short-Fiction. Legacy, 11(1), 17-36.


Daniel, J. H. (1995). The discourse on Thomas v. Hill: A resource for  perspectives on the black woman and sexual trauma. In Kathy Weingarten (Ed.),  Cultural resistance: Challenging beliefs about men, women, and therapy. (pp.  103-117). New York, NY: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.


Davis, K. (Ed.). (1993). Negotiating at the margins: The gendered discourses of power and resistance. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.


De Cock, C. (1998). Organisational change and discourse: Hegemony, resistance and reconstitution. M@n@gement, 1(1).


Demers, J., & Mc Murray, L. (1986). L'enjeu du manifeste, le manifeste en jeu. Longueuil: Le Préambule.


Devalle, S. B. C. (1992). Discourses of ethnicity. Culture and protest in Jharkhand. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Dutoit, A. (1993). The Micropolitics of Paternalism: The Discourses of Management and Resistance on South-African Fruit and Wine Farms. Journal of Southern African Studies, 19(2), 314-336.


Edwards, D. (1999). Emotion discourse. Culture & Psychology, 5(3), 271-291.


Ellis, F. H. (Ed.). (1967). A discourse of the contests and dissentions between the nobles and the commons in Athens and Rome: With the consequences they had upon both those states. Oxford: Clarendon P.


Fisher, R. M. (1985). Rhetoric and American democracy: black protest through Vietnam dissent. Washington, DC: University Press of America.


Fisher, S. (1991). A discourse of the social: Medical talk/powertalk/oppositional talk? Discourse & Society, 2, 157-182.


Fisher, S., & Davis, K. (Eds.). (1993). Negotiating at the margins. The gendered discourses of power and resistance. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.


Flowerdew, John (1997) Reproduction, resistance and joint-production of language power: A Hong Kong case study. Journal of Pragmatics 27:315-337.


Forman, J. G. (1851). The Christian martyrs. Or, The conditions of obedience to the civil government: a discourse. Boston: W. Crosby and H. P. Nichols.


Forrester, M. A., & Ramsden, C. (2000). Discursive ethnomethodology: Analysing  power and resistance in talk. Psychology, Crime and Law, 6(4), 281-304.


French, K. J. (1990). Physician-Patient Communication: Compliance Resistance Strategies and Accounts. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 51(1), 19-3.


Frenier, M. D. (1984). American anti-feminist women: Comparing the rhetoric of opponents of the Equal Rights Amendent with that of opponents of women's suffrage. Women's Studies International Forum, 7(6), 455-465.


Gammell, I. (1992). 'I'll Be My Own Master': Domestic Conflicts and Discursive Resistance in 'Maurermeister Ihles Haus' and 'Our Daily Bread'. Canadian Literature, 135, 15-31.


Garrett, M. M. (1993). Wit, Power, and Oppositional Groups: A Case Study of "Pure Talk". Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(3), 303-318.


Gee, J. P. (1999). Mind and society: A response to Derek Edwards' "Emotion Discourse". Culture & Psychology, 5(3), 305-312.


Gerhardt, J., & Stinson, C. (1995). "I don't know": Resistance or groping for words? The construction of analytic subjectivity. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 5(4), 619-672.


Gordon, P. (1995). The critical double. Figurative meaning in aesthetic discourse. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.


Gruber, H. (1993). Öffentlicher Dissens. (Public dissent). Wiener Linguistische Gazette, 47, 1-27.


Gruber, H. (2001). Questions and strategic orientation in verbal conflict sequences. Journal of Pragmatics, 33(12): 1815-1857.


Gustainis, J. J. (1993). American rhetoric and the Vietnam War. New York: Praeger.



Hacker, K. L. (1992). A political linguistics analysis of network television news viewers' discourse. Howard Journal of Communications, 3(3-4), 299-316.


Hacker, K. L., Coste, T. G., Kamm, D. F., & Bybee, C. R. (1991). Oppositional  readings of network television news: Viewer deconstruction. Discourse & Society,  2, 183-202.


Hackett, R. A., & Zhao, Y. Z. (1994). Challenging a Master Narrative: Peace Protest and Opinion Editorial Discourse in the United-States Press During the Gulf-War. Discourse & Society, 5(4), 509-541.


Hardin, J. M. (2001). Opening spaces. Critical pedagogy and resistance theory in composition. Albany: State University of New York Press.


Hart, J. (1992). Cracking the Code: Narrative and Political Mobilization in the Greek Resistance. Social Science History, 16(4), 631-668.


Hellesnes, J. (1992). Tolerance and Dissent: Theory of Discourse Regarding Mill  and Rorty. Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Philosophie, 40(3), 245-255.


Hill, J. H. (1992). "Today There Is No Respect": Nostalgia, "Respect" and Oppositional Discourse in Mexicano (Nahuatl) Language Ideology. Pragmatics, 2(3), 263-280.


Hirst, R. (1994). Ethos and the Conservative Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Protestant Homiletics. In J. S. Baumlin, & T. F. Baumlin (Eds.), Ethos: New Essays in Rhetorical and Critical Theory. (pp. 293-318). Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.


Hogan, J. M. (1989). Managing Dissent in the Catholic Church: A Reinterpretation of the Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 400-415.


Houston, M., & Kramarae, C. (1991). Women speaking from silence: Methods of silencing and of resistance. Discourse & Society, 2, 387-399.


Hunsaker, D. M. (1978). The Rhetoric of Brown v. Board of Education: Paradigm for Contemporary Social Protest. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 43(2), 91-109.


Huspek, M. (2000). Oppositional codes: The case of the Penitentiary of New Mexico riot. Journal of Applied Communication Research,  28(2), 144-163.


Hyslopmargison, E. J. (2000). The Market-Economy Discourse on Education: Interpretation, Impact, and Resistance. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 46(3), 203-213.


Iliescu, M. (1977). Oppositions semantiques antonymie linguistique et antonymie logique. (Semantic Oppositions, Linguistic Antonymy, and Logical Antonymy). Folia Linguistica, 10, 1-2, 251-168.


Jablonski, C. J. (1990). Dissent and the Challenge of Peace: An Alternative View. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76(3), 310-311.


Jang, S., & Chung, M. H. (1997). Discursive contradiction of tradition and modernity in Korean management practices: A case study of Samsung's new management. In: Sackmann, Sonja A. (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations: Inherent contrasts and contradictions. (pp. 51-71). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.


Jordan, J. W. (2003). Sabotage or Performed Compliance: Rhetorics of Resistance in Temp Worker Discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89(1), 19-40.


Kakava, C. (2002). Opposition in Modern Greek discourse: Cultural and contextual constraints. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(10-11), 1537-1568.


Kaplan, M., & Kelly, J. D. (1994). Rethinking resistance: Dialogics of "disaffection" in colonial Fiji. American Ethnologist, 21(1), 123-151.


Kitzinger,C. (2000).  How to resist an idiom. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 33(2), 121-154.


Kuo, S. (1992). Formulaic Opposition Markers in Chinese Conflict Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 388-402.4


Lake, R. A. (1991). Between myth and history: Enacting time in Native American protest rhetoric. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77(2),123-151.


Levinson, B. A. (1998). The moral construction of student rights: Discourse and judgment among Mexican secondary school students. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 27(1), 45-84.


Little, D. L. (1999). Independent Workers, Dependable Mothers: Discourse,  Resistance, and AFDC Workfare Programs. Social Politics, 6(2), 161-202.


Lupton, D., & Tulloch, J. (1999). Theorizing fear of crime: Beyond the rational/irrational opposition. British Journal of Sociology, 50(3), 507-523.


MacKenzie, F. (1992). The Worse It Got, the More We Laughed: A Discourse of Resistance Among Farmers of Eastern Ontario. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space, 10(6), 691-713.


MacMillan, J. (1995). A Kantian Protest Against the Peculiar Discourse of Inter-Liberal State Peace. Millennium, 24(3), 549-562.


Martin, J. (1999). Grace: the logogenesis of freedom. Discourse Studies, 1(1),  31-58.


Martin, J. (2002). Blessed are the peacemakers: reconciliation and evaluation. In C. Candlin (Ed.), Research and Practice in Professional Discourse. (pp. 187-227). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.


Martin, J. (2004). Positive discourse analysis: power, solidarity and change. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses. 49 (Special Issue on Discourse Analysis at Work: Recent Perspectives in the Study of Language an Social Practice).


Martin, J., & Rose, D. (2003). Working with Discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. London: Continuum.


Mayhew, J. (1750). A discourse concerning unlimited submission and non-resistance to the higher powers. Boston: Printed by D. Fowle.


McLeod, D. M., & Hertog, J. K. (1992). The manufacture of 'public opinion' by reporters: informal cues for public perceptions of protest groups. Discourse & Society 3(3), 259-275.


Mey, J. L. (Ed.). (1986). Language and discourse: test and protest: a festschrift for Petr Sgall. Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Milewa, T., & Deleeuw, E. (1996). Reason and Protest in the New Urban Public-Health Movement: An Observation on the Sociological-Analysis of Political Discourse in the Healthy City. British Journal of Sociology, 47(4), 657-670.


Miller, M. (1994). Intersystemic Discourse and Coordinated Dissent: A Critique of Luhmanns Concept of Ecological Communication. Theory Culture & Society, 11(2), 101-121.


Morel, M. A. (1992). L'Opposition theme/rheme dans la structuration des dialogues oraux. (The Theme/Rheme Opposition in the Structuring of Oral Dialogues). Journal of French Language Studies, 2(1), 61-74.


Morgan, M. (1998).  Theory & Psychology, 8(3), 389-398.


Morgan, M. (1998). Speaking subjects, discursive worlds: Readings from Discourse and Social Psychology. Theory & Psychology, 8(3), 359-376.


Müller-Hartmann, A. (2000). The discourse of race and southern literature, 1890-1940: From consensus and accommodation to subversion and resistance. New York: Peter Lang.


Nelson, S. D. (1994). Wear Your Hat: Representational Resistance in Safer Sex Discourse. Journal of Homosexuality, 27(1-2), 285-304.


Nichols, L., & Feltey, K. M. (2003). The Woman Is Not Always the Bad Guy: Dominant Discourse and Resistance in the Lives of Battered Women. Violence Against Women, 9(7), 784-806.


Nylund, D., & Ceske, K. (1997). Voices of political resistance: Young women's co-research on anti-depression. In: Smith, Craig, &  Nylund, David (Eds.), Narrative therapies with children and adolescents. (pp. 356-381). New York, NY, USA: The Guilford Press.


Oneil, J. D., Elias, B., & Yassi, A. (1997). Poisoned Food: Cultural Resistance to the Contaminants Discourse in Nunavik. Arctic Anthropology, 34(1), 29-40.


Oneil, J. D., Reading, J. R., & Leader, A. (1998). Changing the Relations of Surveillance: The Development of a Discourse of Resistance in Aboriginal Epidemiology. Human Organization, 57(2), 230-237.


Phillips, L. (1996). Rhetoric and the spread of the discourse of Thatcherism. Discourse & Society 7(2), 209-241.


Plasser, F., & Ulram, P. A. (1989). Voting the Rascals Out: Populist Discourse and Political Protest in Austria. Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Politikwissenschaft, 18(2), 151-164.


Priestley, M. (1998). Discourse and Resistance in Care Assessment: Integrated Living and Community Care. British Journal of Social Work, 28(5), 659-673.


Pélissier Kingfisher, C. (1996). Women on welfare: conversational sites of acquiescence and dissent. Discourse & Society 7(4), 531-557.


Ralph, J. R. (1993). Northern protest. Martin Luther King, Jr., Chicago, and the civil rights movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Rivera, R. (2004). A study of liberation discourse. The semantics of opposition in Freire and Gutierrez. New York: P. Lang.


Rose, G. (1994). The Cultural Politics of Place: Local Representation and Oppositional Discourse in 2 Films. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 19(1), 46-60.


Ross, C. (1979). Inferences of Opposition: The Role of Syntactic Structure in Semantic Interpretation in Modern Chinese Texts. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 14(3), 1-26.


Rucht, D., Koopmans, R., & Neidhardt, F. (Eds.). (1999). Acts of dissent. New developments in the study of protest. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.


Selva, L. H. (1985). Toward a Critical Legal Theory: Development of an Oppositional Legal Discourse Under Late Capitalism. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(4), 1061-a.


Shugar, G. W., & Slonczewska, E. (1989). The interactional context of  oppositional discourse. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 20(2), 113-126.


Small, M. (1994). Covering dissent. The media and the anti-Vietnam War movement. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. [«PR[b][Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975][Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975]»]


Stamou, A. G. (2001). The Representation of Non-Protesters in a Student and Teacher Protest: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in a Greek Newspaper. Discourse & Society, 12(5), 653-680.


Stratford, E. (1998). A Biopolitics of Population Decline: The Australian Womens Sphere as a Discourse of Resistance. Australian Geographer, 29(3), 357-370.


Talbot, J., Bibace, R., Bokhour, B., & Bamberg, M. (1996). Affirmation and resistance of dominant discourses: The rhetorical construction of pregnancy. Journal of Narrative & Life History, 6(3), 225-251.


Terdiman, R. (1985). Discourse/counter-discourse: The theory and practice of symbolic resistance in nineteenth-century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.


Thompson, C. J. (2003). Natural Health Discourses and the Therapeutic Production of Consumer Resistance. Sociological Quarterly, 44(1), 81-107.


Thompson, M., & Rayner, S. (1998). Risk and Governance Part-1: The Discourses of Climate-Change. Government and Opposition, 33(2), 139-166.


Trognon, A., & Retornaz, A. (1990). Opposition des points de vue dans le dialogue et elaboration cognitive de la solution du probleme des quatre cartes. (The Opposition of Points of View in Dialogue and the Cognitive Elaboration of the Solution to the Problem of the Four Cards). Verbum, 13, 1-2, 39-55.


Viollet, C. (1988). Discourse Strategies - Power and Resistance: A  Socio-Enunciative Approach. In G. Seidel (Ed.), The Nature of the Right: A  Feminist Analysis of Order Patterns. (pp. 61-79). Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Viollet, C. (1988). Discourse Strategies - Power and Resistance: A Socio-Enunciative Approach. In G. Seidel (Ed.), The Nature of the Right: A Feminist Analysis of Order Patterns. (pp. 61-79). Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Walker,  R.. B. J. (1984). Contemporary Militarism and the Discourse of Dissent. In R. B. J.  Waalker (Ed.), Culture, Ideology and World Order. (pp. 302-322). Boulder and London: Westview Press.


Weiner, J. F. (1994). Convention, Motivation and Resistance in Discourse with Reference to Foi Myth. Semiotica, 99, 1-2, 81-100.


Weingarten, K. (1995). Radical listening: Challenging cultural beliefs for and about mothers. In: Weingarten, Kathy. (Ed.), Cultural resistance:Challenging beliefs about men, women, and therapy. (pp. 7-22). New York, NY: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.


Weingarten, K. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural resistance:Challenging beliefs about men, women, and therapy. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.


Welcomer, S. A., Gioia, D. A., & Kilduff, M. (2000). Resisting the discourse of modernity: Rationality versus emotion in hazardous waste siting. Human-Relations, 53(9), 1175-1205.


Werbner, P. (1996). The Making of Muslim Dissent: Hybridized Discourses, Lay Preachers, and Radical Rhetoric Among British Pakistanis. American Ethnologist, 23(1), 102-122.


Wetherel, M., & Potter, J. (1998). Discourse and Social Psychology--Silencing binaries. Theory & Psychology, 8(3), 377-388.


White, A. M. (1999). Talking feminist, talking Black: Micromobilization processes in a collective protest against rape. Gender and Society, 13(1), 77-100.


Wilson, C. (1986). Rhetoric, Reality and Dissent: The Vietnam Policy of the British-Labor Government, 1964-1970. Social Science Journal, 23(1), 17-31.


Windt, T. (1990). Presidents and protesters: political rhetoric in the 1960s. University of Ala. Press.


Worrall, D. (1992). Radical culture. Discourse, resistance and surveillance, 1790-1820. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.


Zelizer, B. (1995). Journalisms Last Stand: Wirephoto and the Discourse of Resistance. Journal of Communication, 45(2), 78-92.